The posterior cruciate ligament, (PCL), is one of the strongest ligaments located inside the knee joint. Injuries to the posterior cruciate ligament can occur in several ways, including a hard blow to the shinbone or falling down on a bent knee. PCL-Reconstruction PCL reconstruction procedure basically requires a graft. The most common method involves grafting the damaged PCL with segments of the hamstring tendons. If the surgical process requires the reconstruction of multiple ligaments at one time, different graft materials may be used.
PCL reconstruction process is normally done in one of the following techniques: Arthroscopic procedure – It is the most prevalent method of reconstruction surgery for posterior cruciate ligament construction. During this procedure, an arthroscope is inserted into your joint through a small cut in the skin. The arthroscope is provided with a light source and a video camera attached to it. Images captured by the camera can watch on a video monitor. These magnified pictures provide a clear picture and the physician can analyze the problem inside the joint. The surgeon makes a few more incisions to allow entry of thin surgical instruments to insert a graft and repair the damaged ligament. The procedure usually is performed in the outpatient setting and normally takes about two hours.
Open knee posterior cruciate ligament reconstruction – If the injuries are more serious than the patient may need to undergo an open surgery. When compared to arthroscopic procedure, open surgery has more risks and longer recovery time. Even so, it will take into account the appropriate handling of the injury to ensure recovery to normal use.
The Anterior Cruciate Ligament (ACL) is found in the center of your knee. This ligament gets damaged when twisted too much, especially during playing games such as football.
ACL reconstruction surgery is performed to rebuild the damaged ligament with a new ligament. ACL-Reconstruction
The reconstruction is done using a combination of open surgery and arthroscopy.
Ahead of the reconstruction process, the surgeon will analyze your knee arthroscopically and may repair any additional damage to the knee such as worn articular cartilage or a torn meniscus.
During the ACL reconstruction, surgeon makes several minor incisions around the knee. An arthroscope is installed into one of these incisions and the camera provided at one end of the arthroscope transmits clear pictures from inside to a monitor in the operating theatre.
After removing the damaged ligament, the surgeon drills small holes into the upper and lower leg bones near the knee joint. The holes form tunnels through which the new tissue will be anchored. It will be exactly placed in the same palace as your old ACL. Surgeon will attach the new ligament to the bone with screws or other devices. As it heals, the bone tunnels fill in and new ligament is formed.
The patient can go home on the day of the surgery. The patient may have to wear knee brace for first four or five weeks. Some patients may need to use crutches for a month. Physical therapy assists several people to regain motion and strength in their knee. Physical rehabilitation after ACL reconstruction may take several months to a year. The recovery period is different for every person. It may range from four to six months.
Meniscus is a form of tough cartilage tissue found at the end of the bones that forms a joint. For example the knee joint consists of two menisci, one on thighbone and the other of shine bone. Meniscus on the inner side of the knee joint is medial meniscus and the one on the outer side of the knee is known as the lateral meniscus. Meniscus is semicircular in shape and performs the function of shock absorbers in a joint. Injuries may be caused to the meniscus as a result of trauma caused in sport injuries, accidents etc. Meniscus injuries are categorized into two categories. They are degenerative tears and acute tears.
Degenerative tears: As a person ages there is every possibility that his meniscus may weaken and become less elastic. Such meniscus may become torn when a little extra pressure is applied to it. There may not be any symptoms in the initial stages and it may degenerate and become acute tears. It is found that about 60 % of people above the age of 65 have torn menisci.
Acute tears: Acute tears of the meniscus occur when the knee is forcefully twisted. This usually happens in a sports injury or in a motor vehicle accident.
Symptoms of torn meniscus
- Pain in the knee
- Swelling in the knee
- Tenderness when pressed
- Limited mobility of the joint
A patient with a knee pain will be examined to see whether there is any tearing in the menisci. A detailed study of the case history and physical examination can result in the preliminary finding of the tear in the menisci. A detailed investigation with the help of X-rays and MRI scans will help the doctor to confirm the existence of a tear in the menisci.
The area of the tear and the type of the tear are two important factors which have considerable impact on the treatment options for meniscus tears. Conventional treatment options like medication and bed rest will be tried out first. If satisfactory results are not produced by this method then surgical procedure will be opted.